What is Real Cider and Perry?

What is Real Cider & Perry?

Ingredients

o The liquid content before fermentation must consist entirely of non-pasteurized apple (cider), or pear (perry) juice
o No apple or pear juice concentrates to be used.
o Normally, only the sugar naturally available in the fruit should be used to cause fermentation, but in years when the level of natural sugar in the fruit is low, the addition of extraneous sugar to aid fermentation is acceptable.

Process

o No pasteurization to take place during the production process.
o No added colourings to be used.
o No added flavourings to be used.
o There must be no artificial carbonation for draught products.
o Sweetener may be added to fully fermented Cider/Perry to make it sweet or medium.
o The addition of water is permitted to bring the alcoholic content of the Cider/Perry down to the level required by the producer. Ideally, however the minimum juice content should not be lower than 90% volume.
o No micro filtration allowed (this takes all the yeast, leaving a "dead" product).

How To Make Real Cider

The apples are washed and checked for rot or mould. Apples which are rotting should be discarded. The apples are crushed in a machine called a scratter which chops them up into small pieces. They are now called pulp or pommace. The pulp is placed in layers on a press and then the juice is extracted. If a traditional screw or hydraulic press is used the pulp is wrapped in fine mesh cloths, like parcels, and about eight of these are used to make one pressing - called a cheese.

The natural yeasts in the apples, or that have built up in the buildings that will have been used to make cider for many years, start the fermentation and several months later you have cider.

It must be noted that a number of larger producers will add sugar at the fermentation stage, enabling the cider to reach over 15% ABV - for example some of the Westons brands, and then it is diluted down before it is sold (the legal limit for cider is 8.5%) - this process however does not conform to CAMRA's definition of real cider or real perry.

Apples

The apples which are used in the West Country & Herefordshire/Gloucestershire/Worcestershire, and increasingly in other parts of the country are cider apples, which are grown specifically for the purpose of making cider. Cider apples are can be categorised according to their level of acidity and level of tannins. An apple with high acidity is called "Sharp"; conversely, one with low acid levels is called "Sweet". Note that "Sweet" when describing the apple is to do with lack of acid, NOT the amount of sugar present! All apples have sugar; some Sharp apples will actually have more sugar than some Sweet apples! Apples with high levels of tannin - the mouth-drying or puckering effect you get from tea - are called "Bitter". Do not confuse this "dry mouth" feel with a cider that is described as "dry". A cider that is "dry" has no sugar left. (One with sugar left will be medium or sweet).

Ciders are often made from different apple varieties. The reason for this is that not all apples make a good cider, so blending apple types can reduce the unpalatable varieties. With skill and knowledge, an experience cider maker can quite easily make a good cider from a single variety of apple - but it is not easy to do well.

Time of the Year

Producing or making cider this takes place from late August to early in the New Year and depending on ambient temperatures, fermentation can take until the following spring.

Duty

• There is a flat rate of duty on cider up to 7.4% ABV.
• You pay on the quantity made.
• A higher rate is paid for ciders between 7.4% and 8.5% ABV.
• A higher rate of duty is levied on cider using mushroom closures, mainly made using the champagne method.
• A duty exempt limit of 70 hectolitres per year (about 1500 gallons) helps the very small, local producers.
• Duty is controlled by HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC).
• Adding fruit such as strawberries, raspberries and other flavourings to cider or perry that significantly change the flavour from apple/pear, or impart a colour change from amber/golden yellow, or allowing whisky or rum flavours in old casks to significantly alter the flavour are not permitted by HMRC's definition of cider. Any "cider" made like this, even if the producer makes less than 70 hectolitres, is classed by HMRC as "Made Wine" and is liable to pay duty at a higher rate.

Perry

Perry is made in the same way as cider, but made from pears. Pears trees take longer to mature, so the drink is relatively rarer, but gaining in popularity.

Believe it or not more perry is made now than has been made in a century, but it is difficult to market because of its low production volumes. Perry is traditionally a specialty of the Three Counties and Welsh Borders, as perry pears were said to only thrive 'in sight of May Hill'. Now however perry pears are also grown in other areas e.g. Somerset & Norfolk.

The demand is there for perry but producers cannot make enough of it, as there is not enough quality fruit available. It takes only three years for a perry pear planted in the right conditions to bear fruit, but up to thirty years before it is at full maturity.

Yearly CAMRA run a National Cider & Perry Competition and present Gold, Silver & Bronze Awards for both cider & perry.

Serving Real Cider

Depending on facilities and turnover in the licenses premises, real cider is usually served from a 5 gallon polycask or a 20 litre "Bag-in-Box", either on a hand pump, or by gravity.

The Bag-in-Box method is very popular with cider makers for the simple reason that it prevents a headspace of air forming over the cider. Air (or rather Oxygen) is the main enemy of cider as it will oxidise the alcohol to vinegar. Despite cider makers generally preferring Bag-in-Boxes, there still seems to be some reluctance from bar managers to widely adopt the dispensing method, despite the better quality of cider served, and that even an opened Bag-in-Box will keep the cider fresh for up to 3 months - in an opened polycask, the cider will start to acetify (turn to vinegar) within a few days.

Real cider does not need to be served chilled, and certainly not "over ice". A cool-ish room temperature, very much like red wine, will be sufficient. If chilled too much the fruit aromas that give cider and perry its character are suppressed.

Real Cider in West Suffolk

Here is a list of the pubs which serve real cider in the West Suffolk area. Please advise West Suffolk CAMRA should you know of any changes including pubs not mentioned below that are serving real cider

Town/Village Pub Name Address Phone Website
BILDESTON King’s Head 132 High Street, IP7 7ED (01449) 741434 bildestonkingshead.co.uk
BRENT ELEIGH Cock Lavenham Road, CO10 9PB (01787) 247371 whatpub.com/pubs/WSB/94/cock-brent-eleigh
BURY ST EDMUNDS Beerhouse 1 Tayfen Road, IP32 6BH (01284) 766415 burybeerhouse.co.uk
BURY ST EDMUNDS Dove 68 Hospital Road, IP33 3JU (01284) 702787 thedovepub.co.uk
BURY ST EDMUNDS Oakes Barn St Andrews Street South, IP33 3PH (01284) 761592 oakesbarn.co.uk
DALHAM Affleck Arms 1 Brookside, CB8 8TG (01638) 500306 whatpub.com/pubs/WSB/228/affleck-arms-dalham
EDWARDSTONE White Horse Inn Mill Green, CO10 5PX (01787) 211211 edwardstonewhitehorse.co.uk
GREAT WRATTING Red Lion School Road, CB9 7HA (01440) 783237 whatpub.com/pubs/WSB/349/red-lion-great-wratting
HAWKEDON Queen’s Head Rede Road, IP29 4NN (01284) 789218 hawkedonqueen.co.uk
LONG MELFORD Crown Inn Hall St, CO10 9JL (01787) 377666 thecrownhotelmelford.co.uk
NEWMARKET Golden Lion 44 High Street, CB8 8LB (01638) 672040 www.jdwetherspoon.com/pubs/all-pubs/england/suffolk/the-golden-lion-newmarket
OUSDEN Fox Front Street, CB8 8TR (01638) 500740 theousdenfox.co.uk
STANSFIELD Compasses High St, CO10 8LN (01284) 789263 stansfieldcompasses.co.uk
SUDBURY Brewery Tap 21-23 East Street, CO10 2TP (01787) 370876 blackaddertap.co.uk